Center for Urban Health, World Health Organisation

This unit examines the nature of Public Health and offers a framework to help us increase our understanding of public health policy issues. The unit provides the context and history in order to better understand public health approaches, explore the cultural and social dimensions of health and illness and the economic and political environment in which health policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The unit is underpinned by a view of health that includes an explicit recognition of the physical, social and economic environment, affirms the importance of social justice and equity in health care. The unit builds on the perspectives of the World Health Organization, specifically the work on the social determinants of health and the policies which flow, or should flow, from these perspectives. This is a 10 credit point unit. You are expected to study 10 hours per week for 14 weeks on this unit. For example, as tutorial time totals 2 hours per week, you are expected to study a further 8 hours per week outside of class time. This number, however, is an average. Some weeks you will spend more time on the unit completing assignments while in other weeks the workload will be less. It is strongly recommended that you attend all scheduled tutorial activities to support your learning. Students with a poor attendance record may find themselves at risk of not passing the assessments. Weekly lectures and other unit materials will be made available on the unit’s vUWS (ELearning) site accessed from the University home page https://vuws.westernsydney.edu.au. You are expected to consult vUWS at least twice a week, as all unit announcements will be made via vUWS. Teaching and learning materials will be regularly updated and posted online. All communication with the unit coordinator should be through the email address provided in this learning guide: j.macdonald@westernsydney.edu.au. Online study was introduced as an option for domestic students who are unable to attend lectures at Parramatta due to the long distances involved to travel. This year we are pleased to offer this unit as both an online and blended learning option. Overseas students must attend tutorials at Parramatta as a requirement of their visa. 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 3 Becoming a professional in this field requires both an understanding of community and public health, particularly what are the historical, social and cultural determinants of these and the capacity to judge the effectiveness of policies and practices to address issuesboth of disease and health. Upon successfully completing this unit, you should be able to: As a graduate from the Master of Health Science you will have achieved the following course learning outcomes upon completion of the award: 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 4 As a graduate from The University, you should be able to demonstrate all of the subsets of the major attributes which are: 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 5 Independent Reading & Activities Introductions: A) Brief Introduction to the unit. B) What is “health”? Health as interaction with the environment. Salutogenesis : A life course perspective Readings: Macdonald J.J. (2005), Environments for Health PP 79-86 (available online via Library) Eriksson M and Lindström, B. (2008) “A salutogenic interpretation of the Ottawa Charter”, Health Promotion International, 23 (2), 190-199. http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/2/190 The Social Determinants of Health. “The Solid Facts” of the World Health Organization: A life course perspective Readings: Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.). Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Macdonald , J. Environments for Health, A salutogenic approach, Chapter 1 and pages 87-98 (on line via library) https://books.google.com.au/books?id=q8enZAfWsxUC&printsec=frontcover#v=on epage&q&f=false Marmot M 2005, Social determinants of health inequalities, Lancet; 365: 1099–104 http://www.who.int/social_determinants/strategy/en/MarmotSocial%20determinants%20of%20health%20inqualities.pdf What is policy and what is ‘health’ policy? What can policy do to improve health? Readings: Buse K, Mays N and Walt G (2012), The health policy framework. In Making health policy. Open university press Chapter 1. Pages 4-18 https://login.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdire ct%3dtrue%26scope%3dsite%26db%3dnlebk%26db%3dnlabk%26AN%3d474600 Garathy, S. Stuart, R. & McNally L. ABC News (8th December 2016) Sydney’s Lockout laws relaxed as part of a two-year trial, opinion divided on whether the changes are enough http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-08/sydneys-lockout-laws-relaxed-as-part-of-two-yeartrial/8102702 Knaus, C. The Guardian (8th December 2016) Lockout Laws. Mike Baird announces relaxation of controversial policy. 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 6 Aboriginal Health. Mr Rick Welsh The social determinants of Aboriginal health addressed by the Shed in Mt Druitt Readings: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2013). Overview of Australian Indigenous health status, 2013 (pp. 1-15), retrieved from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/uploads/docs/overview_of_indigenous_health_2013.pdf Macdonald, J. & Welsh, R. (2012). The Shed at Mt Druitt and the Social Determinants of Aboriginal Men’s Health. http://www.menshealthweek.org.au/TheShedPaper.pdf Macdonald J. J. (2010) Health Equity and the Social Determinants of Health in Australia. Social Alternatives, 29 (2), 34-40. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/722130905?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo& accountid=36155 The Social Gradient: The basic social determinant of health? Readings: Macdonald, J. (2005). Environments for health: A salutogenic approach. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan. 59-61( 3 pages) Available online via Library https://books.google.com.au/books?id=q8enZAfWsxUC&printsec=frontcover#v=on epage&q&f=false Council of Civil Service Unions/Cabinet Office. (2004). Work Stress and Health: The Whitehall Studies II https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014067369193068K Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.). Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation P10-11 http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Additonal/recommended Readings: Watt, R.G. (2007). From victim blaming to upstream action: Tackling the social determinants of oral health inequalities. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 35 (1), 1-11 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00348.x/full 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 7 Early Childhood and Education –Life courseChildren: A salutogenic perspective Readings: Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.) (pp. 14-15- Early Life). Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Nadya Dich, Åse Marie Hansen, Kirsten Avlund, Rikke Lund, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Helle Bruunsgaard & Naja Hulvej Rod. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation. Anxiety, Stress & Coping Vol. 28, Iss. 4, 2015 Macdonald, J. (2005). Environments for health: A salutogenic approach (pp. 61-63- Education). London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan. Available online via library. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=q8enZAfWsxUC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Work /unemployment : Life course- Adult: The working environment Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.) (pp.18-21). Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation. (3 pages) http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Vancea, M and Utzer M, 2016, How unemployment and precarious employment affect the health of young people: A scoping study on social determinants Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Vol 45, Issue 1, pp. 73 – 84, https://doi-org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.1177/1403494816679555 Additonal/recommended reading: Reeves, A., McKee, M. & Stuckler, D. (2014). Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 205(3), 246-7. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/205/3/246.full 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 8 Social support and social exclusion: Relationships/partners Readings: Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.), (pp. 16-17 and 22-23) ( 4 pages total) . Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Macdonald, J.J. (2005). Environments for health: A salutogenic approach (pp. 65-68). London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan. ( Available online via the Library) ( 4 pages) https://books.google.com.au/books?id=q8enZAfWsxUC&printsec=frontcover#v=on epage&q&f=false Additional/Recommended Reading C. Hawton, A., Green, C., Dickens, A. P., Richards, S. H., Taylor, R. S., Edwards, R., . . . Campbell, J. L. (2011). The impact of social isolation on the health status and healthrelated quality of life of older people. Quality of Life Research, 20(1), 57-67 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11136-010-9717-2 Intrasession Break Transport as a social determinant of health Readings: Cohen J, Boniface, S and Watkins S., Health implicationsoftransportplanning,developmentandoperations, Journal ofTransport&Health1(2014)63–72 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2013.12.004 Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.). (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.) (pp. 28-29). Copenhagen: Centre for Urban Health, World Health Organisation Milne, M.G. (2012). A public health perspective on transport policy priorities, Journal of Transport Geography, 21, 62–69 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966692312000178 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H , P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 9 Gender and health Readings: Women’s Health Policy- Executive summary pp 5-9: http://www.health.gov.au/womenshealthpolicy Male Health Policy- Building on the strength of Australian Males pp 7-9 : http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/male-policy Doctors Reform Society Policy – Gender and Sexual Health http://www.drs.org.au/policy/8-gender-health/ Biology of Stress Dr Luckman Hlambelo Readings: Watch the video clip “Stress Portrait of a Killer” The whole documentary is recommended but if time is scarce view from (23.05 – 44.25). http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/stress-portrait-of-a-killer/ McEwen (2012) Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 109, Supplement 2: Biological Embedding of Early Social Adversity: From Fruit Flies to Kindergartners (October 16, 2012), pp. 17180-17185 Ageing as a social determinant of health: Lifecourse – Third age Dr Anthony Brown Readings: McMunn et al (2006) Social Determinants of health in older age. In M. Marmot & R.G. Wilkinson (Eds.), Social Determinants of Health (Second ed.). Oxford: Oxford University press http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf Swift et al. (2017) The risks of ageism model. How ageism and negative attitudes towards age can be a barrier to active ageing Social Issues and Policy Review, 11(1), 195-231, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/doi/10.1111/sipr.12031/full Overview and conclusions: the way forward? Unit reflections and revisitation of task in week 1. 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 10 UNIT LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 11 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 12 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 13 ASSESSMENT ITEM DUE DATE WEIGHTING ULO’s FEEDBACK MODE DATE Note Results may be moderated b 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 14 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 15 Does not meet expectations Meets Expectations Exceeds Expectations Marks 0-49 F 40-64 Pass 65-74 Credit 75-84 Distinction 85 -100 High Distinction Content (30 marks) 3 Health policy description does not include a name and or purpose of the policy Health policy is named and briefly explained but the aim of the policy is not provided Health policy is named and the purpose of the policy is briefly explained Health policy is named and the purpose of the policy is concisely discussed. Health policy is named and the purpose of the policy is explained concisely and coherently. 9 No explanation offered as to why this policy is important for health An explanation offered as to why this policy is important for health but some inconsistencies are present An explanation is offered as to why this policy is important for health with nil inconsistencies but this could be further developed. A detailed explanation is offered as to why this policy is important for health with nil inconsistencies An insightful and coherent explanation is offered as to why this policy is important for health with nil inconsistencies. 9 Evidence is not provided or some evidence is provided but not supported by 4 references Some evidence is provided to support the explanation offered about the importance of this policy for health but the evidence is limited or from dubious sources. 4 references provided Evidence is provided from some reliable sources and supports the explanation offered about the importance of this policy for health. 4-6 references provided Evidence provided is from credible and reliable sources and supports the explanation offered about the importance of this policy for health. 7+ references provided. Extensive and reliable evidence is provided to support the explanation about the importance of this policy for health. 9+ references are provided. 9 Implementation of the health policy is not discussed or there is no mention of the mechanisms required to ensure compliance. Implementation of the health policy is discussed, including some discussion of the mechanisms required to ensure compliance but there are some inconsistencies. Implementation of the health policy is discussed including the mechanisms required to ensure compliance. The implementation is realistic but this could be developed further Implementation of the health policy is discussed including the mechanisms required to ensure compliance. Suggestions include some original ideas supported by evidence. Implementation of the health policy is discussed, including the mechanisms required to ensure compliance. Suggestions are original, demonstrate insightful thinking and are supported with credible evidence. Technical ( 10 marks) 2.5 Unclear or rambling structure No introduction or conclusion. The structure is unclear in some parts. The introduction or conclusion is missing. There is a lack of signposting to guide the reader through the essay Mostly clear structure with some including and introduction and conclusion. There is signposting to guide the reader through the essay. Clear structure incorporating an introduction and conclusion with signposting that sufficiently guides the reader through the essay Clear structure incorporating an introduction and conclusion with signposting that successfully guides the reader through the essay. 2.5 APA 6th Referencing Edition is not used or used with major errors in text and in the reference list APA 6th Referencing Edition is used but with many errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used with some errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used appropriately throughout the essay and reference list with very few errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used appropriately throughout the essay and the reference list. 2.5 Many spelling, grammar and punctuation errors detract from the essay’s clarity Some spelling, grammar and punctuation errors detract from the essay’s clarity. Few spelling, grammar and punctuation errors Very few to no spelling, grammar and punctuation errors Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation. 2.5 Expression is vague, verbose and hard to understand throughout Expression is vague, verbose and hard to understand in some places Expression is mostly clear, concise and fluent. Expression is clear concise and fluent. Expression is clear, concise and fluent. If all criteria are met this essay would be deemed suitable for publication. Penalties Late Turnitin submission – 10% per day late including weekends (See Learning Guide) 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 16 This assessment is designed enable students to show that they have integrated the learning about social determinants of health and are able to apply their knowledge in health practice. This assessment requires students to work back from a health problem. As in health practice, students are challenged to identify and understand the social determinants that lead to health problems in specific populations ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 17 ? ? ? ? ? 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 18 Does not meet expectations Meets Expectations Exceeds Expectations Marks F 0-29 marks 30-38 Pass 39 -44 Credit 45- 50 Distinction 51 – 60 High Distinction Content ( 50 marks) 5 The health problem is not described. The health problem is briefly described and supported by evidence but some inconsistencies are present. The health problem is concisely described and supported by evidence with nil inconsistencies A well- developed description of the health problem is provided and supported by evidence from the literature An excellent description of the health problem is provided and supported by evidence from the literature. 20 The student has not identified the appropriate SDH of the health problem or population No references have been provided or are of from dubious sources The student has explained how the SDH have resulted in the health problem for this population and provided evidence to support the discussion but some inconsistencies are present The student has explained in detail how SDH have resulted in this health problem for this population and provided evidence but this could be further developed The student has provided a well-developed and detailed explanation of how the SDH have resulted in this health problem for this population. They have also provided reliable evidence to support the discussion. The student has provided an insightful and coherent explanation of how the SDH have resulted in this health problem for this population. They have also provided reliable evidence to support the discussion 15 No stakeholders identified or are inappropriate. No discussion of how the stakeholders could help to address the SDH of the health problem Relevant stakeholders are identified and how they might address the health problem is discussed but some inconsistencies are present. The discussion is supported by some evidence Appropriate stakeholders are identified and how they could address the health problem is discussed but the discussion could be further developed. Some evidence is provided Appropriate stakeholders are identified and how they might address the health problem is discussed. The suggestions are realistic and include some original ideas supported by evidence. Appropriate stakeholders are identified and how they might address the health problem is discussed. The suggestions are original, demonstrate insightful thinking and are supported by evidence. 10 Evidence is not provided or some evidence is provided but less than 6 references in total Some evidence is provided to support the discussion but the evidence is limited or from dubious sources. A minimum of 6 references are provided Evidence is provided from some reliable sources and supports the discussion. 7- 8 references are provided Evidence provided is from credible and reliable sources and supports the discussion. 8-10 references are provided Extensive and reliable evidence is provided to support the discussion. 10+ references are provided. Technical ( 10 marks) 2.5 Unclear or rambling structure. No introduction or conclusion. The structure is unclear in some parts. The introduction or conclusion is missing. There is a lack of signposting to guide the reader through the essay. Mostly clear structure including an introduction and conclusion with some signposting to guide the reader through the essay. Clear structure including an introduction and conclusion with signposting that sufficiently guides the reader through the essay Clear structure including an introduction and conclusion with signposting that successfully guides the reader through the essay. 2.5 APA 6th Referencing Edition is not used or used with major errors in text and in the reference list APA 6th Referencing Edition is used but with many errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used with some errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used appropriately throughout the essay and reference list with very few errors APA 6th Referencing Edition is used appropriately throughout the essay and the reference list. 2.5 Many spelling, grammar and punctuation errors detract from the essay’s clarity Some spelling, grammar and punctuation errors detract from the essay’s clarity. Few spelling, grammar and punctuation errors Very few to no spelling, grammar and punctuation errors Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation. 2.5 Expression is vague, verbose and hard to understand throughout Expression is vague, verbose and hard to understand in some places Expression is mostly clear, concise and fluent. Expression is clear concise and fluent. Expression is clear, concise and fluent. If all criteria are met this essay would be deemed suitable for publication. Penalties Late Turnitin submission – 10% per day late including weekends (See Learning Guide) 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 19 Submission 400416 P U B L I C H E A L T H P O L I C Y A N D S O C I E T Y A U T U M N 2 0 1 8 20

 
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