Does the culture of children drinking wine with meals with their families create a healthier relationship with alcohol later in life for them?

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This course requires doing substantial research and correctly citing your references. Because drug use topics can be controversial and sometimes emotional, the assignments in this course require locating and reporting information from academic sources.  This assignment will walk you through the basic steps of using the NU library databases to find academic sources for your course discussions and essay, and how to differentiate between a scholarly and non-scholarly source. 

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This course also requires using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition (APA) to cite your sources.  This assignment will teach you how to automatically format references into APA format using the NU library database citation function. You will learn how to make sure that your APA reference lists and in-text citations are correct. 

Create the following 3 items (instructions below) and put them into one separate Word document and save it.

Part 1: Watch training videos and read information about APA and summarize what you learned

Under the heading “Part 1,” write a one paragraph summary of what you learned from the training materials below.  You do not need to use APA format for this assignment or provide any references.

Create your paragraph first in a Word document and save it before you submit it because Bb sometimes fails. 

1. Watch 4 minutes of the National University Library 13 minute video on APA Basics, starting with Reference List (at 6:44 minutes) through Reference Database Article (10.25 minutes).  You are welcome to watch the entire 13 minute video but this class will not use the additional information

2. Listen to the following short 7 page tutorial on basic in-text citations, citing multiple authors or sources, and citing sources with no author or date

3. Read the following 1-page instruction on Reference List format

4. Read the following 2-page handout on APA

5. Watch the following short video on how to format your Reference list

6. Watch the following short video on how to order your Reference list correctly

7. Read the following 1-page PDF on in-text citations

Part 2:  Make corrections to reference and citation mistakes on a sample paper

Read the sample paper, below.

a. Identify all the mistakes in citations and references that you find in the sample paper below.

b. Write your answers to the following questions about the sample paper and add your answers to the Word document you created in Part 1, under the heading “Part 2.”

Save your Word document before you submit it because Bb sometimes fails. 

1. What mistakes did you find in the format of the in-text citations?

2. What mistakes did you find in the format of the references listed under the References list?

3. Are there any references on the References list that are not cited in the text?  If yes, which ones?

4. Are there any references cited in the text that are not listed on the References list?  If yes, which ones?

5. What mistakes did you find in the format of References list (spacing, indentation)?

6. What other mistakes in the format of the paper, if any?


Does the culture of children drinking wine with meals with their families create a healthier relationship with alcohol later in life for them?

The holidays are right around the corner. Imagine walking in to your relative’s house that you only see a few times a year, getting offered a glass of wine as you walk in and clinking glasses with your little nephew who is 10 years old, and also drinking a small glass of wine with you. This is not the norm in the United States, so it would come off as a shock. Now, fast forward to the same evening when one relative, over 21, has had too much to drink, and Aunt Edna has to hide the liquor because everyone in the family knows that this one cousin cannot handle his alcohol. The entire family is on edge and trying to avoid a fight that might happen due to the one relative who can never handle his alcohol. Imagine how nice it would be if the family never had to worry about fights and alcohol being a possible scenario if our American culture had children drink wine with meals at a young age, thus creating a healthier relationship with alcohol later in life?

De-stigmatizing alcohol consumption by letting children consume alcohol with parents can lead to a healthier relationship with alcohol later in life (Sofuoglu, 2017). Parenting style is a huge role in this de-stigmatization of alcohol. According to the NIH, one study reports that if the parents allow their children to have sips of alcohol with them in a proper familial setting and have good communication about the use and abuse of alcohol, it can be beneficial to the child’s relationship with alcohol (NIH, 2017). To make the relationship between alcohol and adolescence a positive one, the parenting style needs to be that of an Authoritative style (NIH, 2017). The context of how the parent provides the alcohol is a big indicator if the alcohol relationship will be positive. Communication is essential. According to Foley, if the adolescence is aware of the perceived consequences of the abuse of alcohol, then the relationship with alcohol can be positive (Foley, et al, 2014). Drinking with a parent in a familial context with that parent showing protectiveness of underage drinking also resulting in a positive relationship with alcohol (Foley, et al, 2014).

While some may see the concept of adolescence drinking with family to have a positive relationship, most of the studies done report that children who start drinking underage, even under adult supervision, leads to excessive drinking and therefore a negative relationship with alcohol later in life (NIH, 2017). In other words, even with parental provision of alcohol consumption there is a direct risk factor for excessive drinking. An example is when parents provide alcohol for parties attended or hosted by their kids (NIH, 2017). Overall, the literature suggests that permissive attitudes toward underage drinking, combined with poor communication and unhealthy modeling, can lead kids into unhealthy relationships with alcohol (NIH, 2017).

In one study, it was reported that at age 12, with parental provision of alcohol and the alcohol being made easily available at home, there was a significant increase in the path of underage drinking and usage between the ages of 12-14 (Komro, et al, 2007). The results from a systematic review conducted by Sharmin, et al, concludes that overall, there is a risk for increase in consumption of underage drinking when provided alcohol by parents (Sharmin, et al 2017).

My conclusion was not what I thought it would be when I started researching for this paper. I was under the impression that if a child was offered to drink alcohol with the parents under certain settings, that it would create a positive relationship with alcohol later in life. I was surprised to find that most of the literature shows it does the opposite. The big indicator of whether or not a positive or negative relationship with alcohol issues is not so much the availability of the alcohol by parents, but the communication by the parents. Communication is key. We could also say that communication is the same as education. Educating the adolescent about the negative effects of alcohol consumption seems to be the denominator and therefore I think the biggest concept to be taken away from this debate. I have two boys, ages 7 and 11. I have let them sip alcohol before but never talked about the implications of underage drinking and the consequences of abusing alcohol. I WILL NOW! As with any public health issue, education and communication is always the missing link.


1. Foley, K.L.; Altman, D.; Durant, R.H.; and Wolfson, M. (2004) Adults’ approval and adolescents’ alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Health 35(4):e17–e26.

2. National Institute of Health. (Feb 2017). Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from:

3. Komro, K. A., Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Tobler, A. L., Bonds, J. R. and Muller, K. E. (2007), Effects of home access and availability of alcohol on young adolescents’ alcohol use. Addiction, 102: 1597–1608. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01941.x

4. Sharmin, S., Kypri, K., Khanam, M., Wadolowski, M., Bruno, R., & Mattick, R. P. (2017). Parental Supply of Alcohol in Childhood and Risky Drinking in Adolescence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health14(3), 287.

5. Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370(23), 2219-27. Retrieved from

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