Public Health And Sexuality

Hi dear,

can help me to finish this assignment with good quality and be on time please?

answer one of the discussion questions in well-developed paragraphs.   Use citations from reputable sources (for example, our textbook).  Grammar and spelling are taken into consideration when grading. Answer this question as if you are writing a mini paper, with a clear introduction, conclusion and supporting evidence.  This an academic writing space for you to demonstrate that you have read the weekly chapters, understood the question.  This should be 2-3 substantial paragraphs that reflect key ideas from the week. Include citations at the end from journal articles, our book, or other scholastic sources. 

Save your time - order a paper!

Get your paper written from scratch within the tight deadline. Our service is a reliable solution to all your troubles. Place an order on any task and we will take care of it. You won’t have to worry about the quality and deadlines

Order Paper Now

Pick one of the two topics to discuss:

Topic 1

· What do you believe has the largest influence on gender roles in contemporary American society? Parents? Teachers? Media? Something else? Why?

o To help answer this question, be sure to read Chapter 5 from your textbook

o Please be thorough with your response and be sure to back up all information with reputable sources

Topic 2

· Most of us think of the world as made up of men and women who are assigned gender by their anatomy. How does the existence of transsexuals and two-spirits suggest that this classification is inadequate for understanding human gender? 

o To help answer this question, be sure to read Chapter 1 from your textbook.

o Please be thorough with your response and be sure to back up all information with reputable sources.

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Chapter 5: Gender and Gender Roles

© Jared C. Tilton/NASCAR via Getty Images

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Main Topics

  • Studying gender and gender roles
  • Gender-role learning
  • Contemporary gender roles and scripts
  • Gender variations

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles: What’s the Difference?

  • Sex – Refers to whether one is biologically female or male
  • Genetic sex – One’s chromosomal and hormonal sex characteristics
  • Whether one’s chromosomes are XX or XY or something else
  • Anatomical sex – Physical sex
  • Gonads, uterus, vulva, vagina, penis, and so on
  • Gender – The social and cultural characteristics associated with biological sex
  • Rooted in culture
  • Assigned gender – Gender given by others, usually at birth
  • Gender identity – A person’s internal sense of being male or female

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles: What’s the Difference?

  • Gender role – Attitudes, behaviors, rights, responsibilities associated with each sex
  • Stereotypes
  • Rigid and generalized beliefs about each gender’s behavior
  • Tend to be misleading
  • Gender-role attitude
  • Beliefs a person has about oneself and others regarding personality traits and activities
  • Gender-role behavior
  • Actual activities or behaviors a person engages in as a female or a male
  • Gender presentation
  • Gestures or personality as perceived by others

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Sex and Gender Identity

  • Gender variations
  • Deviations from gender norms
  • Gender variants – Individuals who do not or choose not to conform to societal gender norms
  • Assigned gender – Gender that is assigned based on anatomical appearance
  • Transgender – Umbrella term for those who do not conform to traditional notions of gender expression

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Masculinity and Femininity: Opposites or Similar?

  • Culture determines the content of gender roles in its own way
  • Cultural norms fluctuate and change with time and across cultures
  • Stereotypes fit this pattern of polar differences
  • Men embody instrumentality and are task-oriented
  • Women embody expressiveness and are emotion-oriented
  • Sexism – Discrimination against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits
  • Often associated with gender stereotypes
  • May prevent individuals from expressing their full range of emotions or seeking certain vocations

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender and Sexual Orientation

  • Heterosexuality is a critical component of masculinity and femininity
  • Beliefs about homosexuality
  • If a man is gay, he cannot be masculine, and if a woman is lesbian, she cannot be feminine
  • If a man is gay, he must have some feminine characteristics, and if a woman is lesbian, she must have some masculine characteristics
  • Heteronormativity – Negative stereotypes
  • Fuel homophobia

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender-Role Learning: Theories of Socialization

  • Cognitive social learning theory
  • Attitudes and behaviors are a result of social learning
  • Consequences control behavior
  • Social learning involves cognitive process
  • Use language
  • Anticipate consequences
  • Make observations
  • Cognitive development theory
  • Learning is age-dependent

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender-Role Learning: Theories of Socialization

  • Social construction theory
  • Gender – Set of practices and performances that occur through language and a political system
  • Acknowledges the relationships that exist among meaning, power, and gender
  • Gendered meanings are only one vehicle through which sexuality is constituted

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender-Role Learning in Childhood and Adolescence

  • Parents as socializing agents
  • Manipulation
  • Channeling
  • Verbal appellation
  • Activity exposure
  • Teachers as socializing agents
  • Peers as socializing agents
  • Media influences

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender Schemas: 
Exaggerating Differences

  • Culture creates gender differences where none otherwise exist
  • Gender schema – Cognitive organization of the world according to gender
  • Associate gender with non-sex-linked qualities
  • Gender distinctions form the basis of cultural norms, status, taboos, and privileges

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Contemporary Gender 
Roles and Scripts

  • Traditional gender roles
  • Traditional male gender roles
  • Male sexual scripts
  • Script – Acts, rules, and expectations associated with a particular role
  • Traditional female gender roles
  • Female sexual scripts

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Changing Gender 
Roles and Scripts

  • Contemporary sexual scripts –
  • Sexual expression is positive and healthy
  • Sexual activities involve exchange of erotic pleasure
  • Sexuality is equally involving, and both partners are equally responsible
  • Sexual activities may be initiated by either partner
  • Both partners have the freedom to experience orgasm
  • Sex is acceptable within a relationship context

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Androgyny

  • Flexibility in gender roles
  • Unique combination of instrumental and expressive traits
  • Influenced by individual differences, situations, stages in life cycle

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Figure 1: Gender Variations: The Gender Continuum

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender Variations

  • Transgender phenomenon – Embraces the possibility of
  • Numerous genders
  • Multiple social identities
  • Disorders of sexual development/intersex
  • Conditions other than standard male or female anatomy
  • Intersex – Variations in congenital sex anatomy that are considered atypical for females or males
  • Sex chromosome anomalies
  • Turner syndrome – Genetic condition where a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes
  • Klinefelter syndrome – Males have one or more extra X chromosomes
  • Mosiacism – Condition in which cells within the same person have a different genetic makeup

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender Variations

  • Hormonal disorders
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome – When a person is genetically male but is resistant to male hormones or androgens
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia – A group of inherited disorders of the adrenal gland
  • Can affect both boys and girls
  • 5-Alpha reductase deficiency – A condition whereby a genetic male will not produce enough of a hormone called dihydrotestosterone
  • Unclassified form of abnormal development
  • Hypospadias – Condition where opening of the penis is misplaced
  • Foreskin may form a hood over the top of the glans
  • Twist in the shaft, slit in the underside of the glans

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender Variations

  • Gender identity disorder
  • Strong and persistent cross-gender identification
  • Persistent discomfort about one’s assigned sex
  • Medical treatment includes three phases:
  • A real life experience in the desired role
  • Hormones of the desired gender
  • Surgery to change the genitalia and other sex characteristics
  • Transsexuality
  • Incompatibility of a person’s gender identity and sexual anatomy
  • Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) – Brings genitals in line with preferred gender identity

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Gender Variations

  • Coming to terms with differences
  • Most societies face difficulties with differences because differences
  • Are complex
  • Are not understood
  • Challenge the traditional or religious notions of “normal”
  • Overcoming differences
  • Self-acceptance
  • Removing fear
  • Education, advocacy and open communication

Copyright 2016 © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display

Final Thoughts

  • Studying gender and gender roles
  • Gender-role learning
  • Contemporary gender roles and scripts
  • Gender variations
 
"Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!"