This week, students will be completing a paper to address the following two case studies.
Greg Case Study:
Peggy and Gary had been married for five years, and had been trying to have a child. They had undergone artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization, but each pregnancy had resulted in a miscarriage. Peggy and Gary decide that surrogacy was their best option and placed an advertisement in the local college newspaper.
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Josephine, a 21-year-old college student, answered the advertisement. At the time, she was dating a man named Jerry who she loved very much and hoped to marry. But Jerry had recently broken up with Josephine. Hoping to trick Jerry into marrying her, Josephine agreed to be the surrogate for Peggy and Gary. Using Peggy and Gary’s zygote, Josephine underwent in vitro fertilization and became pregnant. During the pregnancy Josephine underwent routine medical examinations, as required by the surrogacy contract. During one of the examinations, a genetic screening test was performed and it was discovered that the child had Down Syndrome. Peggy and Gary did not desire to have a child with Down Syndrome and in accordance with the surrogacy contract paid Josephine to undergo an abortion. In addition, Josephine contacted Jerry, telling him that she was carrying his child. Not wanting to be a husband or father at a young age, Jerry paid Josephine for an abortion as well. He then transferred to another school in a different state.
As a college student who could use the cash, Josephine gladly took the money for the abortion. But because of religious reasons she did not have an abortion and carried the child to term. She never told Peggy, Gary, or Jerry that she delivered a child. Unfortunately, being a single mother and college student was too much for Josephine. At three months, she took the child, whom she called Greg, to the local hospital and surrendered him under the state’s Safe Haven law.
Address the following questions:
- Shortly after the child was surrendered, Jerry found out that Josephine had delivered a child, which he thought was his. Jerry’s parents completed the paperwork necessary to adopt Greg, because they could not fathom the idea of someone else raising their grandchild. Should Jerry’s parents be allowed to adopt Greg? Explain and support your answer.
- Shortly after the child’s second birthday, Greg needed to have minor surgery to correct an intestinal problem. Part of the pre-surgery laboratory work involved determining the child’s blood type. The blood typing indicated that it was biologically impossible for Jerry to have fathered Greg. Jerry and Jerry’s parents are now suing Josephine. Should Josephine have to pay the amount of money it cost to raise and support Greg? Explain and support your answer.
- As part of her testimony in the lawsuit, Josephine discloses the truth about Greg and the surrogacy pregnancy. Although enraged, Jerry’s parents felt it necessary to contact Peggy and Gary. When Peggy and Gary learn that their biological child had actually been born, they petitioned the court to have their child returned to them and to award them custody. How should the court decide? Should the child remain with Jerry’s parents or be given to Peggy and Gary? Explain and support your answer.
Baby Fae Case Study
On October 14, 1984, Baby Fae was born two weeks premature, with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (a condition that at the time was 100 percent fatal). Baby Fae’s mother, Teresa Beauclair, was presented with two options; keep the child in the hospital or take the child home. Teresa opted to take the child home, and was preparing to go through the dying process until Dr. Leonard Bailey presented her with a third option. The highly experimental surgery involved replacing Baby Fae’s heart with that of a baboon. Dr. Bailey had been investigating the possibility of cross-species transplantation and discussed his research with Teresa, gaining her consent to the operation. As you can image, the medical procedure was publicized across the United States and animal rights activists were outraged and protested.
While initially, the operation appeared to be successful, Baby Fae’s organs started to fail, leading to her death 21 days after the transplant surgery was performed. In announcing her death at a press conference, Dr. Bailey stated, “Infants with heart disease yet to be born will someday soon have the opportunity to live, thanks to the courage of this infant and her parents.” One year later, the first human to human heart transplant was performed in a child. Dr. Bailey credits the success, in part, to the information and experience that was gained by performing the xenotransplant (Cross-species) procedure.
Address the following questions:
- What is your initial reaction to this case? What ethical concerns does this case bring up in relation to: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, fidelity, and justice? Explain and give specific examples.
- The study of animal research has led to many advances in diabetes, cancer, neurological conditions, and cardiac. Currently, pig and bovine valves are still used in heart surgeries. Do you feel research on animals is necessary in the medical field? Explain your answer.
- If you were caring for baby Fae, how could the following information effect your interaction with the parents, and possible care of the child? Do you feel information about the family: their past, current status, and criminal record, should be publicized or shared? Explain your answers.
After the transplant, NBC news released this information:
“NBC News has learned the identity of the child’s parents. We will respect their wishes and not name them. However, certain aspects of their past might be relevant to some of the medical controversies in this case. According to relative and court records, the couple was never married. They had separated by the time the infant was born. Both have had trouble with the law in the state they came from, the father for disorderly conduct, and the mother for passing bad checks. They had little money when the baby was born.”
- For each of these cases an APA formatted paper must be used, and should include a title page, level headings, references and citations.
- This assignment should include at least 3 references and
- Should be at least three pages in length for each case (six pages, not including title page and references).
- Students should address the proposed questions providing ample detail, examples, and additional support.